Recalled opener Rahul was 77 not out and Ravindra Jadeja, the last of India’s recognised batsmen, 27 not out in an unbroken partnership of 46.
England took just one wicket in another rain-interrupted session, Rishabh Pant falling for 25.
India, following a second day cut short by bad weather, resumed on 125/4 after England great Anderson took two wickets with successive deliveries – including a golden duck for India captain Virat Kohli.
That moved Anderson into joint third place in the list of all-time leading Test bowlers as he equalled retired India leg-spinner Anil Kumble’s tally of 619 wickets.
Rahul, however, was still there on 57 not out after only being recalled to open when Mayank Agarwal was ruled out having been hit on the head batting in the nets on Monday.
But he should have been out for 52 when he edged Anderson only for Dom Sibley to drop a routine catch at second slip.